Soil erosion can take the form of ... in the outer part of center pivot systems, excessive furrow or border inflows, and uncontrolled tailwater or runoff. �5�ȡ��o[�������w��C�*Թ� �D!�@�2��%�9�N?�OU�����}��_ٷ�KB����:^��cб��O�ѱC�3%�@���Q�ѱ��+4�[���� +cXS�C�9��]Y ���� c8�F�9�l��i1��(V��)��|���B��>�{�słz����I'C�4w���Tۥ���|���d���bY26|0 ֌�kb�IjИa'`���p�A}Q�S��8�X���Q`"rv��`���V���D�b�ļБ��f�.���Jϋȯ �t�f0#T��6��A��G�ek�۽S��4S���HR�9�H�g�9�S�&���ơv4p`��q�]� H��UK��0�����c�c����T��^V=���RHyt���c��q�"E����1�6q�E��� &�1��m81�qI�(�U1M���&�_�qǎ�p���T���}����9/1�� `������"�H��`.�P|Zz��eQ�m����+~E�W��������\#��ɜ����1�<7m^���{�R%e��,US��-_��lꇰ 9_hpn_jT�������cJms�c� .��rh����P$z�j��9a� =qȁG�4�HE-�&�/�N%�� �1��%��DS�E�Q��N@-@:��L�%�����������Tf�d̪Tq�sX�� �*�+gͣ�7���Gn4K)��]_�/W��8\��F�W� border irrigation basics Border Irrigation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Surface Irrigation Methods. border irrigation method. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. Figure 4–6 Border irrigation in progress 4–8 Figure 4–7 Illustration of contour border irrigation 4–8 Figure 4–8 Tailwater outlet for a blocked-end border system 4–9 Figure 4–9 Field smoothing can be done by a land plane 4–12 Figure 4–10 Typical tailwater recovery and reuse system 4–13 0000011110 00000 n 0000009858 00000 n It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.. }��z2+��z��b@�QN4w B� }X���Sn� a�%��ؒ�P��X4���(cCl���_@Y&���,�3>���,�z���ӝ��Ao����tf���2*���mϦ��m��Ճ�J)�]ݟJ1����U��\�WZl�'gc�o������H`�������u�o���ơ2�j\n/�׫GD=��n���Բ0d��x���e*i 8e - Graded Border Irrigation Application Efficiency Analysis - Example (PDF; 28 KB) 8f - Field Irrigation Evaluation Example Guide - Form (PDF; 106 KB) 8g - Measurement of Soluble Salts (PDF; 21 KB) Water is scattered throughout the land by a machine of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in 360 degrees pattern or a circle that would move around the land and sprinkle water all over the soil and it is really efficient and effective and this procedure or system is well recommended in a lot of countries but mostly used in the USA. 0000004296 00000 n x��]K�\�q)Ҳ��^�^u9���;/�w�����4�@���� �e~EV�d�_�u6��$� �$]����t��{�)� B<�|�ѧ'�>Tb��ߟ{�|캿x�����j�Vbp{#�rP�^���{�X���ɯNƢ��0]��~w���Z�����O�bY�u"�gb�}0ڭ��{c����'�[��9���? The area between the ridges is flooded during irrigation. Border irrigation is generally best suited to the larger mechanized farms as it is designed to produce long uninterrupted field lengths for ease of machine operations. 0000014735 00000 n In the Punjab, border irrigation is used to irrigate wheat crops grown over 90% of the cultivated area. 2.2.2 Border irrigation. Section 21 of 22 (21b - Choosing an Irrigation System) This Chapter Includes: Methods of applying water Effect of land slope Requirements, Considerations, Advantages/Disadvantages . <> 171 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 173 /H [ 1047 362 ] /L 466824 /E 70015 /N 9 /T 463285 >> endobj xref 171 31 0000000016 00000 n EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Border Rivers (NSW) Catchment Irrigation Profile was developed from a study to obtain regional and industry-based assessments of water use efficiency (WUE)1 and irrigation efficiency (IE)2. The use of surface irrigation on moderately. Lr���\���,W`L-��Z~ g�5�_a�p6�)2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r � ��A��`��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\�����wdC����A;B�A+z���-����7�X��/P&l��^ �`�W�ʄ� The width of strip varies from 10 to 15 metres and length varies from 90 m to 400 m. Strips are separated by low embankments or levees. `���0H������;3�}}w�#����t9���]�g��~a'�NH�o�on�.�eĨ�_,��� ��R���*UJ�����|�\i�$|��Jh��|#� ���KN{�Me�7��˷v�z��=� .��N+R#���C0S#�0j�v-U��������ao���/�^�1]���}k����N�dU�H[�_�om�*�G�CD��Du�����`!��� ��NH�)t�����Dj�7*D�y�qT&����N�*���B��U^��;�イ�$ Ƒ�⯐m]z� N�)pE���3D���3D���3D���3D6e[g�p���3D���3D���3D����C���3D&�"K��"K��"K��"K��"���3�K��"K���!���"K��"K��"Sl��l���l���l���l��M��L��l���l���l���l���l����R�u��R�u��R�u��R�u~�R�u��W`)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd�-��m�!��m���m�!��m�!�1�:C\�)��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��Yζ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�ٔm�!0�Xʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yζ�ٔi�#2��b�L�Ef�"�l�9�� �r@ʶ��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wd)�:Gd�-2�[�l9 e[�̲E��"�l���R�u��[d�-2��f��-(����sD��"\��l�� ��$[d�-2��a�̲EƖ4[H��"K��9"l�I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"c��-�l��I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\��l���� ǖR�u��4[d�-2��c�̳E�"K��9"l�I���r�g�)�:Gd�-2��g�,pE���sD&�"�l�)��4[dl9 ��)�:G`�+��Xʶ��� H�|UM��8�����'��3;Zi����V{ �I�ҭ��[�D��ZI�zU��Ճ" 0000012231 00000 n Activity 1. Surface Irrigation Methods Their main classification of surface methods is as follows: (1)Free flooding (2)Border flooding (3) Check flooding (4) Basin flooding (5) Furrow irrigation method (6) Drip irrigation method. ;��:�Cb*I��Wk� �ض~|�����~p��g�ɳ��ɳ~�ݵ?y��g?�����~��o?���_~����o_�����������ߏ��߾��Z}�;'?��������������{�yv~����?���k���_�u������� �4Gd�)��$ ��)@&8"Ӏ�#0����T���2�0�r�(��P�I�ȀG���G��� �#kj� ő5���9���$G��� �#k` ɑ5 0��Ț@r�&��"�Y� H��� H��i�$G�4#p��� �#kZ` ��5-0��Ț@pdM 8r�5l���i�Gִ� ��� BORDER RIVERS (NSW) CATCHMENT IRRIGATION PROFILE 1 1. 6Modes of Application-1 7. The evaluation of existing border systems using a surface irrigation model showed that the irrigation conditions, comprising of inflow rate, border dimensions, and cut-off time, were diverse in tubewell and canal irrigated areas. 0000014759 00000 n Center Pivot Irrigation. %PDF-1.3 %���� This is the goal of efficient irrigation: to ensure the greatest amount of water that is delivered to the farm is used by the crop rather than being lost to groundwater or off the farm as drainage. 10. The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. 0000013967 00000 n 0000001409 00000 n H��y�O��-3r�q�}��F�c����l$�>�)�u� MO�'Bz�����0�&9��4�Z����҇��Y��-�� hq0�=8�0�l n������8w���2{����������a��b�V13!>��s w �ڊRL���-�~����EW�ԡVI�(]�Y�_�4�{V�.�n&�Y?���li����P��o5��=���HI� �Lf>�N�V��y�����k�viy�F��*�CPD�C6!J)N �߇n��b��j��o�? Another major variable, however, that does not appear in basin irrigation, is the slope of the field. ��. 5 Maximum, minimum, and proposed initial q0 Table 2 Maximum allowable inflow rates for irrigation borders (National Engineering Handbook 1974) qmin must be used. Border Strip Method: In this method a field is divided into number of strips. 0000006022 00000 n The equations of border irrigation are solved by the method of characteristics using a prescribed time increment. Principles of surface irrigation border check furrow (and bed) contour In your workbook, complete activity 1 on the important principles of Readily accessible irrigation data were collected from State %PDF-1.3 0000013122 00000 n 0000007521 00000 n If t d < r req the irrigation is not complete and the cutoff time must be increased so the intake at the inlet is equal to the required depth. 0000001387 00000 n Irrigation induced soil erosion is a problem on specific soils in certain areas. Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. 0000008998 00000 n *)�LT i�L��“ؾ���@�v�� �^�g,����8����wX�2�aY�������F@q 6g``���t͐e�-����l��};�#��j�0 �PD endstream endobj 201 0 obj 246 endobj 173 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Parent 167 0 R /CAPT_Info << /R [ 0 5662 0 3878 ] /S [ 0 2831 0 1939 ] /Rz [ 300 300 300 300 0 0 ] /SK (00000130)>> /Contents [ 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 187 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R ] /Resources << /XObject << /Im16 199 0 R >> /Font << /F2 175 0 R /F10 189 0 R /F7 186 0 R /F15 184 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> /CropBox [ 0 0 465.35999 679.43958 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 174 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1009 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 73 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 401 /MaxWidth 1175 >> endobj 175 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 174 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 408 500 500 833 778 180 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 564 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 722 722 611 333 278 333 469 500 333 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 480 200 480 541 778 500 778 333 500 444 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 889 778 611 778 778 333 333 444 444 350 500 1000 333 980 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 453 250 333 300 310 500 750 750 750 444 722 722 722 722 722 722 889 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 722 722 722 722 722 722 722 564 722 722 722 722 722 722 556 500 444 444 444 444 444 444 667 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 ] >> endobj 176 0 obj 841 endobj 177 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 176 0 R >> stream Surface irrigation is often referred to as flood irrigation, implying that the water distribution is uncontrolled and therefore, inherently inefficient. Set alert. The general difference is that basin irrigation involves applying water to a nearly level field and may include ponding for extended time periods. As the Border irrigation is a type of surface irrigation where the field is divided into strips separated by border ridges running down the gradient of the field. The border irrigation concept is to flush a large volume of water over a relatively flat field surface in a short period of time. in the world are contour irrigation, border irrigation, and furrow irrigation (Walker and Skogerboe, 1987). 1. Download as PDF. 0000006044 00000 n The strip Pedosphere 20(4): 419–426, 2010 ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P c 2010 Soil Science Society of China Published by Elsevier Limited and Science Press Effect of Sprinkler and Border Irrigation on Topsoil Structure in Winter Wheat Field∗1 SUN Ze-Qiang1, 2∗, KANG Yao-Hu and JIANG Shu-Fang2 1Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100 (China) 0000003375 00000 n About this page ... Basin and border irrigation systems are similar in that both involve a uniform sheet of water flowing over the soil. 0000003353 00000 n Border irrigation systems are better suited for sloping fields than basin systems because water flows between dikes rather than ponded within basins. The water’s level may be raised at the head of the border by placing a small dam across the distribution channel just downstream from the border. 5 ing a slight change in the borders, so that the latitude as regards rotation is rather wide. 0000012209 00000 n 0000007779 00000 n models of border irrigation recession. This temporary dam may be earthen, a sheet metal dam inserted into the bottom and sides of the channel, or a plastic sheet dam. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and The field slope between dikes H��Uˎ�0������4�~c/��E��n�N▄�L���L��*R��s_�{@��o�=mo�VhC �J�A�qͱF��&kw>A)`���E��X� t[C��������� �1f 0000009880 00000 n Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. H�b```e``�)�@���� �96�}���b�i�Pυ����mC��;���-���P��=��C�ו��'�+�5.�1Y!_��I�0�����5nț(xU^�ve`pq �ʠ���� ��1 YӍ��� To optimize the design of border and check basin irrigation in the slopping land, field dimensions, slope and soil informa- tion were collected from 3 blocks of langha watershed of The irrigated areas between dikes may be 3–30 m wide and up to 400 m long. Borders can be up to 800 m or more in length and 3-30 m wide depending on a variety of factors. The most favorable soil for borders is a free-working loam several feet deep, underlain by a more or less impervious subsoil. H��UKn�0=����D�?�� ��wA�E�*���:�}G Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. B��Bf�७�7F!.�#�����",F����5�0MT��-��z�೭Ұ���\m$L��E�����rI�mC��| �Y�� � !��( endstream endobj 180 0 obj 728 endobj 181 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 180 0 R >> stream FLOOD IRRIGATION includes several methods: Border strip, basin, contour or bench border irrigation, flooding from contour ditches, wild flooding, and border ditch. Introduction to Surface Irrigation System The term 'surface irrigation' refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow. ); qinshujing2010@126.com (S.Q. Water is released at the field's high end and the borders guide the water down the slope as a shallow sheet that spreads out uniformly. 29 0 obj The Border Method of Irrigation. osf83�C�{.����^/�KNUa(�@��_w�2�֒Ñ�5�"��]Q_�?�ر�hU��GS6�2���.�9�S�|��}�g�J�Ÿ���$7!�������|�TY�|�x�.L��~�ٹa>F�0*�ЌH�(��+���"�-�!�� �RB�_)Rc��U�r�C��8�L�ھoˬbɱ����@Ap��^� �M�y��bh��9��}i%�����j�4H���q�&� ��r��z>Nh������+bL^/���h�pb��I��e�ҳ�"B�d���{^�qxu�B�-U�{_�w�9��é�3/���t�B_ � ��B_���rx��5 a�F�8D�ᚥ8�� �*Aj��}s(�Y�k�+j��$�W��Sb��U[ZU����0�=�V�{�E"Mp�������K�z��R ~�V�v���Nݸ_��m'K���Vѹ��x�*��&`$��d=`A�΢ glbM̨�l� u��h���4�B 0000004318 00000 n M���t@$�9"�� {�l5[��o��r`�یm%KY��;(��f�K��)W�KRI��,I�ո�i�rF[7��,,�zBk�J���Ą���ѻ.sa�#����4ޜێ+r�Z)3��}A&�o�?U#j��5�о��L8˥�æ�����Մ�L��W� ���R endstream endobj 182 0 obj 780 endobj 183 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /ArialMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1072 1000 ] /Flags 32 /CapHeight 724 /Ascent 905 /Descent 212 /StemV 80 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 506 /Leading 33 /AvgWidth 441 /MaxWidth 1294 >> endobj 184 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 185 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 778 500 778 333 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1000 778 667 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 185 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1089 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 427 /MaxWidth 1273 >> endobj 186 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /ArialMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 183 0 R /Widths [ 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 278 278 355 556 556 889 667 191 333 333 389 584 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 278 278 584 584 584 556 1015 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 500 667 556 833 722 778 667 778 722 667 611 722 667 944 667 667 611 278 278 278 469 556 333 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 334 260 334 584 750 556 750 222 556 333 1000 556 556 333 1000 667 333 1000 750 611 750 750 222 222 333 333 350 556 1000 333 1000 500 333 944 750 500 667 278 333 556 556 556 556 260 556 333 737 370 556 584 333 737 552 400 549 333 333 333 576 537 278 333 333 365 556 834 834 834 611 667 667 667 667 667 667 1000 722 667 667 667 667 278 278 278 278 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 584 778 722 722 722 722 667 667 611 556 556 556 556 556 556 889 500 556 556 556 556 278 278 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 549 611 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 187 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 182 0 R >> stream agronomy Article Comparison of Water- and Nitrogen-Use E ciency over Drip Irrigation with Border Irrigation Based on a Model Approach Yahui Wang 1, Sien Li 1,*, Hao Liang 2, Kelin Hu 3, Shujing Qin 1 and Hui Guo 1 1 Center for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; yahuilan@163.com (Y.W. Part 652 Irrigation Guide. Border irrigation can be viewed as an extension of basin irrigation to sloping, long rectangular or contoured field shapes, with free draining conditions at the lower end. The borders are raised beds constructed in the direction of the field's slope. 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