Four days after his death on 6 July 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. ^ King George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917. After the English Civil War (1642-1648) the country was briefly governed by Oliver Cromwell and then his son Richard. In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. For British monarchs since the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, see. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widow of the Lancastrian King Henry V. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother King Henry VI. In less than a month, "King Louis I" controlled more than half of the country and enjoyed the support of two-thirds of the barons. What is the only name shared by four consecutive kings of England - trivia question /questions answer / answers. The acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland (previously separate sovereign states, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the Kingdom of Great Britain.[126]. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland. Conventionally viewed as England’s first king William I is perhaps best known for his invasion of Englandon 14 October 1066. But while the islands now had a new name, there was as yet no single King of England. Since ancient times, some monarchs have chosen to use a different name from their original name when they accede to the monarchy. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and the confidence of the Army, and was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood in May 1659. Jane was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16. It is in a union with Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.All four countries are in the British Isles and are part of the United Kingdom (UK).. Over 55 million people live in England (2015 estimate). Britroyals Home Britroyals Shop Kings & Queens Kings & Queens. Britroyals Menu Home & Shop Home & Book Shop. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament with the English Council of State acting as executive power during a period known as the Commonwealth of England. There has not been a Queen (or King) of England for over 300 years. Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including, The date of Edward II's death is disputed by historian. [93] Parliament did the same in an Act in 1397. Various families (all interrelated) have given England rulers since that time, including the houses of Anjou, Lancaster, York, Tudor, Stuart, Hanover, and Windsor. [1], Arguments are made for a few different kings thought to control enough Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be deemed the first king of England. Harold was only recognised as Regent until 1037, when he was recognised as king. The first king of England is generally said to be Egbert, who united the realms of Wessex, Cornwall, Mercia, Kent, Sussex, Essex and East Anglia in the 9th century and gave them the name England. The Civil War in England from 1642 until 1652 stemming from a growing enmity between King and Parliament, led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York. This was a survey of the entire population, and their lands and property, to help in collecting taxes. This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. The name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period (Engle-land, Engelond). [3][4] The title "King of the English" or Rex Anglorum in Latin, was first used to describe Æthelstan in one of his charters in 928. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants. In the middle of the 17th century, the English Royalist squire Sir Robert Filmer likewise held that the state was a family and that the king was a father, but he claimed, in an interpretation of Scripture, that Adam was the first king and that Charles I (reigned 1625–49) ruled England as Adam’s eldest heir. After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066. William ordered the Domesday Book to be written. ^ Updated daily according to UTC Who were all the kings of England? The word, "England", loosely translates as, "The land of the Angles". An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness … in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions"[104] (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.[103]. Britain. ÆÐELFLÆD f Anglo-Saxon Old English name composed of the elements æðel "noble" and flæd "beauty". Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the bulk of their French possessions, although they are not different royal houses. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain. Richard III was crowned on 6 July 1483 with. Henry VIII was crowned on 24 June 1509 with. When King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603, he was well aware that he was entering a sticky situation. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) and Duke William II of Normandy (vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). Seven sub-kingdoms - Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia and Northumberland - had been formed by the newcomers, and their fortunes rose and fell often with the skill and determination of their rulers. There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons. His system of castles established a greater sense of central authority than had existed previously, especially the impressive stone fortifications which now represent some of t… The name, "England", is etymologically, Anglo-Saxon; that is to say, it originated with the arrival of the Angles tribe who migrated from Central Germany en route to the British isles 1500 years ago during the immediate aftermath of the Fall of the (Western) Roman Empire. The first king of England is generally said to be Egbert, who united the realms of Wessex, … Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him but this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings. Eustace died the next year aged 23, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.[62]. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then aged 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp). By royal proclamation, James styled himself "King of Great Britain", but no such kingdom was actually created until 1707, when England and Scotland united to form the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with a single British parliament sitting at Westminster, during the reign of Queen Anne, marking the end of the Kingdom of England as a sovereign state. The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Engleterre. Kings and Queens of England, Scotland, Wales, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. [107][108] Acts were passed in England and in Ireland which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority (see Treason Act 1554). The First Kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). The regnal name is usually followed by a regnal number, written as a Roman numeral, to differentiate that monarch from others who have used … [41] Upon Edmund's death just over a month later on 30 November, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king for nineteen years. Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. [xvii], This article is about English monarchs until 1707. Which ruler's final words were, "Soon there will only be five kings left, kings of England, diamonds, hearts, spades and clubs?" Upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. Under the terms of the marriage treaty between Philip I of Naples (Philip II of Spain from 15 January 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor. James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. The Principality of Wales was incorporated into the Kingdom of England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301 King Edward I invested his eldest son, the future King Edward II, as Prince of Wales. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). [70] "King Louis I of England" remains one of the least known kings to have ruled over a substantial part of England.[71]. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. By the 14th century, England was also used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. His descendants ruled England until Canute the Great, a, (Canute, Hardeknud, Hardicanute, Knud, Knut). Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. The Angevins (from the French term meaning "from Anjou") ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. William II was crowned on 26 September 1087. Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut. Son of Edward VII, King of England, and Princess Alexandra of Denmark, he married Queen Mary of Teck (called May) in 1893. The king who began the personal union was James VI of Scotland who was also James I of England, and his name is often written (especially in Scotland) as James VI and I. Britain was the name made popular by the Romans when they came to the British islands.. England. It became unused after the Normans introduced their form of Adalbert after their invasion. Offa dominated a large part of southern England in the late eight century, but his descendants did not manage to keep the area as a kingdom. Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. Æðelflæd was a 10th-century queen of Mercia. Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of the United Kingdom and Head of the Commonwealth on 6th February 1952. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister Mary queen. He became King of England in 1327 at the age of 14, after the deposition of his father King Edward II and retained the position until his death. The Norman Kings of England in the Middle Ages The Kings of England in the Middle Ages started with the Norman Invasion. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. The House of York claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp, but it inherited its name from Edward's fourth surviving son, Edmund of Langley, first Duke of York. James II was crowned on 23 April 1685 with. Both Egbert, king of Wessex and Offa, king of Mercia are sometimes called the first kings of England. In addition, many of the pre-Norman kings assumed extra titles, as follows: In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. England is a part of, but not the same as, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. King Arthur The Legend of King Arthur. (See family tree.). Similarly, his grandson is James VII … After a coup d'etat in 1653, Oliver Cromwell forcibly took control of England from Parliament. Edward I was crowned on 19 August 1274 with, Edward II was crowned on 25 February 1308 with. After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London. The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707.[111]. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 February 1014. This is 84% of the population of the UK. Henry VI 1422-61, 1470-71 Suffered from insanity Dieu et mon droit was first used as a battle cry by Richard I in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of Philip II of France. King Edward III was born to Edward II of England, and Isabella of France in Windsor Castle, Berkshire on November 13, 1312. Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626. [viii], Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 August 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 April 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). Richard II 1377-1399 Weak-willed "poet-king." England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy. He was never crowned. England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. [95] Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal House of Lancaster. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. It was within the power of the Lord Protector to choose his heir and Oliver Cromwell chose his eldest son, Richard Cromwell, to succeed him. He submitted to King William the Conqueror. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, and most of the Angevin kings before John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate crowns resting on the same head. It turns out a queen can rule without a king. After King Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings, the Witan elected Edgar Ætheling as king, but by then the Normans controlled the country and Edgar never ruled. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I. Elizabeth I's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Richard I was crowned on 3 September 1189. Edward VI was crowned on 20 February 1547. Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside. The Heptarchy (Old English: Seofonrīċe) is a collective name applied to the seven kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England (sometimes referred to as petty kingdoms) from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century until the consolidation into the four kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia in the eighth century. Henry VII was crowned on 30 October 1485. A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarchs and popes during their reigns and, subsequently, historically. At a grand ceremony in St. Paul's Cathedral, on 2 June 1216, in the presence of numerous English clergy and nobles, the Mayor of London and Alexander II of Scotland, Prince Louis was proclaimed King Louis I of England (though not crowned). Learn about why Queen Elizabeth's husband, Prince Philip, is not the king of England. Henry III was crowned on 28 October 1216. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Alternative successions of the English crown, Family tree of English and British monarchs, List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death, List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states, "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON", "Ethelred II 'The Unready' (r. 978–1013 and 1014–1016)", "Edmund II 'Ironside' (r. Apr – Nov 1016)", "Edward III 'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)", "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)", "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)", "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)", "England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217", "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)", "History of St Giles' without Cripplegate", "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712", "William III (r. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. 1689–1694)", "Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707", "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens", "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_English_monarchs&oldid=995347080, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 15:14. [94] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. The name of King Arthur does not appear in records detailing the Dark Ages Kings of England either. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. Early Notables of the King family (pre 1700) Distinguished members of the family include Oliver King (c.1432-1503) was a Bishop of Exeter and Bishop of Bath and Wells who restored Bath Abbey after 1500; Robert King LL.D. Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. The potential candidates are Magnus Maximus, Ambrosius Aurelianus, Arthnou and Lucius Artorius Castus. England used to be known as Engla land, meaning the land of the Angles, people from continental Germany, who began to invade Britain in the late 5th century, along with the Saxons and Jute.. Great Britain. The direct, eldest male line from Henry II includes monarchs commonly grouped together as the House of Plantagenet, which was the name given to the dynasty after the loss of most of their continental possessions, while cadet branches of this line became known as the House of Lancaster and the House of York during the War of the Roses. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. However he suffered military defeat at the hands of the English fleet. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who initially ruled Wessex, one of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which later made up modern England. The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Edmund Tudor's son became king as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, winning the Wars of the Roses. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII and wife of James IV of Scotland. He died in Sheen Palace, Richmond on June 21, 1377 at the age of 64. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707 under Queen Anne (who was Queen of Great Britain rather than king). King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by King John. Its king, Alfred the Great, was overlord of western Mercia and used the title King of the Angles and Saxons, but he never ruled eastern and northern England, which was then known as the Danelaw, having earlier been conquered by the Danes from Scandinavia. The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. 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