This involved the construction of an elaborate system of roads, canals, levees, and water-control structures stretching throughout South Florida. For Teachers | Box 4364, W.P.B., FL 33402 | Why did builders drain the swamp land that was part of the Everglades? Many inhabitants of the outlying islands were forced to abandon their homesteads. Name Date mail: P.O. But starting in the 1880s, Americans determined to subdue Mother Nature started trying to drain the Everglades with canals, hoping to create a new paradise for agriculture and development. Should he literally do that. De-Compartmentalizing the Everglades In order to save the Everglades we must “decompartmentalize” the system. It was considered wasteland and so they started to drain the everglades and replaced the water for houses. American Alligator. The first industry in the Glades was fishing for catfish. Florida, along with other states of the old Confederacy, was just about broke. This period in Everglades history was all about "drain baby, drain". They did not feel welcome, and did not feel safe with the whites, get away from the city (weird working there). 8. As Florida became part of the Union and also more settled, businessman and government officials looked to Florida's swamplands, the Everglades in particular, to drain for use as agricultural land, according to the University of Florida. What did the Corps of Engineers do to the Everglades during a 30 year period? Early settlers and land developers considered the Everglades to be a worthless swamp. Poor crops, shrinking numbers of fish and game, droughts, serious hurricanes and other calamities once again heaped pressure on the Seminoles. The most infamous incident of the times, the vigilante murder of a local man suspected of several murders, occurred a few days after the hurricane. Canals continue to serve an important function today by holding the overflow of rainwater. At the turn of the 20th century hunting the abundant birds in the Everglades was a major source of cash income, as plume feathers became a popular addition to women’s hats. The Army Corps of Engineers confined the Kissimmee River to a 53 mile (85.3 km) long canal system, destroying thousands of … It served as the county seat of Collier County until 1960, when prosperity waned and county offices were moved to Naples. The Everglades climate has been classified as subtropical, featuring hot humid summers, when 80 percent of rainfall occurs, and mild winters. Subsidence is not caused by cultivation, but occurs wherever drainage desaturates peat soil. Then he could have that swamp drained, he always wanted to drain the swamp. The American alligator is regarded as a “keystone” species in the Everglades. Between 1905 and 1910, large tracts of land were converted to agriculture. An even greater danger threatened to destroy the entire Everglades: proposals to drain the marshes and turn the vast wetland into a developer's dream. A fictionalized account of the event is told in the book Killing Mister Watson by Peter Matthiesson. Native Americans | 8. Restoring America's Everglades Recognized worldwide as a unique and treasured landscape, the Everglades is a one-of-a-kind network of natural resources that makes up the largest wilderness east of the Mississippi River, and the largest subtropical wilderness in the United States. Name Date The drainage was begun without any formal study of the landscape and without any consideration given to the environmental effects it would have. With the support of many early conservationists, scientists, and other advocates, Everglades National Park was established in 1947 to conserve the natural landscape and prevent further degradation of its land, plants, and animals. Men such as William L. Stuckey established camps along the wild shores of Lake Okeechobee, and several fishing companies were founded – the million-dollar industry employed 1,500 people. The Everglades is a safe haven for several species of plants and animals. The north side of the trail is drowning from too much water while the south side of the Trail; Everglades National Park & Florida Bay are impacted by lack of water. 7. An aquiferis a layer of rock underground that helps drain, filter, and purify water. Although the tiny cane farms and fishing shanties are gone, both areas maintain the tranquil beauty for which they are famous. Why did builders drain the swamp land that was part of the Everglades? More than 360 bird species can be found in Everglades National Park alone. How did the Everglades become polluted? Although they battled with the alligators and crocodiles who live in the ‘Glades, they did not interfere with the overall balance of the ecosystem. 33034. . Plant and Henry M. Flagler made the region more accessible and attractive to tourists. Links | But by 1912 Lake Okeechobee had been fished out and the industry was gone. The Everglades and Chokoloskee community was just recovering from a hurricane in 1909 when it was devastated by another, the worst on record, the following year. 5. Low-lying farm fields were salted by flood tides and most cisterns were polluted, a major tragedy in an area where few springs or wells existed. It became the trade center for homesteaders who occupied the deserted Calusa sites scattered throughout the Ten Thousand Islands region. The degradation of the Everglades became an issue in the United States in the early 1970s after a proposal to construct an airport in the Big Cypress Swamp. The collapse of the frontier Seminole economy in the 1920s threatened the Florida Indians with assimilation and extinction. Homestead, FL It also permanently severed the natural connection be-tween the Everglades proper and its headwaters. Napoleon Bonaparte Broward launched his ambitious drive to drain the Everglades and transform miles of sawgrass prairie from Miami to Lake Okeechobee. The Everglades is North America’s largest subtropical wetland ecosystems. In 1845, when Florida first became a state, the legislature took the first steps to drain the Everglades. Beyond gaining cash from farming or charcoal sales, people depended on hunting small game and fishing for food. He could use his presidential power to get the land sold to him now. The Everglades is internationally known for its extraordinary wildlife. Drainage canals effectively succeeded in draining the Everglades by the 1930’s, effectively halting the sheet flow of water across the eastern portion of south Florida. Their friends were still alive after the hurricane. The phrase "drain the swamp" dates back decades, but D.C. wasn't actually built on a swamp. His persistence paid off when Congress passed legislation in 1934 to establish … Everglades, subtropical saw-grass marsh region, a “river of grass” up to 50 miles (80 km) wide but generally less than 1 foot (0.3 metre) deep, covering more than 4,300 square miles (11,100 square km) of southern Florida, U.S. Although the U.S. Congress had granted the Everglades land to the State of Florida in 1850, it wasn’t until 1903 that a patent solidified their title. The hurricane of 1928 was an even better reason. Draining the Everglades. But to create farmland, the swampy Everglades had to be drained. Everglades Destruction Over the past hundred years, the Everglades has been suffering from pollution, water loss, loss of habitat, and loss of wildlife. As they arrived, developers cut more canals and built new roads. Everglades City is home to several airboat tours that explore parts of the Everglades outside the national park. The Everglades National Park is the largest surviving subtropical wilderness in the US. Why have the wetlands suffered over the years? Neighboring Chokoloskee did not have a road until a causeway was built from the mainland in 1956. This abundance of "new" land stimulated the first of several south Florida land booms. 4. People | World War ll | 6. Expanded dredging efforts between 1905 and 1910 transformed large tracts from wetland to agricultural land. How is the Everglades the same and different from places you have visited or know about? Census records from that year reveal that many of the African Americans living in Flamingo were born in the Bahamas and Jamaica. An opponent of Everglades drainage, Stoneman published editorials that infuriated Governor Broward . Railroads constructed by entrepreneurs like Henry B. In 1928, landscape architect Ernest Coe began an effort to designate a national park in south Florida. ... the Everglades. Everglades - Everglades - Development of the Everglades: After the Seminole Wars, which occurred sporadically from 1817 to 1858, interest in the Everglades centred on exploiting its wildlife, especially the heron and egret for their feathers and the alligator for its hide. Early Florida settlers wanted to drain the Everglades, a swampland covering about 4,000 square miles in south Florida. Talk about your unwanted guests. This abundance of "new" land stimulated the first of several south Florida land booms. Most people assume that when the settlers planted their roots here they began to drain the Everglades. However, the canals easily got clogged with silt (dirt), so when roads and railroads connected to Lake Okeechobee, travel on the canals stopped. Draining and development dates back to the early 1900’s and many projects designed to alter the Everglades went unquestioned. How is the Everglades the same and different from places you have visited or know about? The Everglades today receives less than one-third of its historic water flow, the water is contaminated by fertilizer and other runoff, and the wildlife-rich wetlands are half the size they were when the federal government started its draining projects in the 1920s. There is a lot of stinky swamp full of near Palm Beach . Site Map | The notion of draining the vast wetland persisted into the 20th century. Draining the swamps created rich farmland, but also left the area prone to flooding. Parts of Everglades National Park have been so dry in past years that alligators have died from a lack of water. Maps & Photos | The restoration of the Everglades is an ongoing effort to remedy damage inflicted on the environment of southern Florida during the 20th century. The history of draining and development of the Everglades dates back to the 19th century. The destruction and drainage of the Florida Everglades dates back to the 19th century. What did the Corps of Engineers do to the Everglades during a 30 year period? An example is the control and reduction of wildfires that normally would benefit the native species that are dependent on a regular fire regime for … More than 2,000 people died when the lake sloshed over its meager southern dikes into the surrounding farming communities of Belle Glade, Pahokee and South Bay. Tustenegee | Chokoloskee, surrounded by park waters at the end of Highway 29, is still home to fishermen, with a few motels and a resort having been added for park visitors. In the 1800s, speculators started dredging and draining the Everglades, but it wasnt until the early 20th century that the harmful side effects were apparent. A fter heavy rains in May drove up water levels in Lake Okeechobee, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began discharging water into rivers to the west and east of the lake.. Now, Gov. The canals also supplied a new means of transportation. How did we drain the everglades the everglades river of interests south florida sun sentinel the daily standard world news everglades main page 8 Draining The Everglades Parkland Historical SocietyEverglades Digital LibraryEverglades Restoration 101 Of Drainage News SouthdadenewsleaderPeople Everglades National Park U S ServiceDrain The Sw Royal Palm Natural … They had been trying to capture and kill them but were unsuccessful. Name two ways the Everglades benefits the communities in Florida. How did the Everglades become polluted? Credits | They’re not picky eaters either, consuming species native to the Everglades like wood storks, alligators, and even deer, per the Everglades Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area. Prosperity of a sort reached Everglades City in the 1920s when Barron Collier made it his headquarters for the building of the Tamiami Trail across south Florida. “They are rich habitats for plants, birds, and other animals and provide higher ground and stability for the Everglades drainage system.” Ardren says Everglades restoration models used by scientists and government entities do not take human factors into account, specifically prehistoric human occupation. He described the village as 38 shacks on stilts, infested with fleas and mosquitos. Settlers used them to reach their new land, and farmers used them to ship their produce to the eastern towns with larger populations and connections to the railroad. The governors believed in their obligation to drain the wetlands for cultivation and settlement, and each one contributed to its progress, beginning with William Bloxham in 1881, although Napoleon Bonaparte Broward is most often remembered for beginning the actual drainage. This purchase started wheels turning that did not stop through lawsuits, government resolutions, land grants, studies, and contracts made and cancelled. Florida Everglades 101 In uncultivated areas of the Everglades, subsidence is less obvious but probably widespread. By the 1920s visitors and new residents flocked to blossoming towns like Fort Lauderdale, Miami, and Fort Myers. The Past It was an old idea, dating back to the 1880s - drain the swampy Everglades south of Lake Okeechobee and develop agriculture. While the project still provides many of the intended benefits, the alteration of regional wetland areas, estuaries, and bays — combined with increasing population pressures and changing land uses — has significantly degraded the natural system. And literally, that's the worst thing you can do environmentally. Capable of killing a wide range of wildlife, they kill alligators, birds, deer and especially small mammals. What happened when the Everglades shrank in size? They built dikes, canals, and pumping stations to drain the water even more. visit: 300 N. Dixie Hwy, W.P.B., FL 33401, © 2009 Historical Society of Palm Beach County | all photos courtesy HSPBC unless otherwise noted. Pythons have been slithering through the Everglades since the 1980s when some were released into the wild as overgrown pets. Draining the Everglades Early settlers and land developers considered the Everglades to be a worthless swamp. They straightened the river in the 1960s into a canal to drain swampland and make way for the state's explosive growth. Draining and development dates back to the early 1900’s and many projects designed to alter the Everglades went unquestioned. Dredging the Everglades, 1924 An even greater danger threatened to destroy the entire Everglades: proposals to drain the marshes and turn the vast wetland into a developer's dream. Should he buy up some of the federal land near there that is now swampy muck. Removing the water would also remove mosquitos, alligators, and other creatures that depended on the water. Expanded dredging efforts between 1905 and 1910 transformed large tracts from wetland to agricultural land. By the 1930's, more than 400 miles of drainage canals were … They built dikes, canals, and pumping stations to drain the water even more. Over 140 people occupied Chokoloskee in 1910. They were seen as having no utility to humans B. He also stated the flea powder was the “staff of life” and that the cabins were thickly sooted from the use of smudge pots. Only the highest ground of the old Calusa shell mound remained above water. Many of these exotics are successful because they take advantage of unnatural alterations to the Everglades environment. Chokoloskee, near present-day Everglades City, was first settled in the 1870s, although it had been the home of Calusa Indians for centuries in pre-Columbian times. Disclaimer | Leverett White Brownell, a naturalist, visited Flamingo in 1893. 5. They wanted to develop cities and towns in the region C. They thought it would prevent flooding D. They wanted to use the water to fill water bottles. The phrase drain the swamp was originally popularized to reference the literal removal of water from marshy areas. Geography | Rainfall varies spatially across southern Florida so that the inland marshes and Lake Okeechobee only receive about 60 percent of the rainfall levels recorded in the coastal areas (Gunderson and Loftus 1993). Life in Flamingo could be unpleasant. It … The blood and bodily fluids just drain down the table, into the sink, and down the drain. Everglades National Park is the pipe end of the Florida Everglades, which began as a marshy field draining into a creek north of Orlando and ends as an 1.5 million acres of aqua and terra firma. A. 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